History of Microprocessor | Features


We explain what a microprocessor is, the history and characteristics of this integrated circuit. Also, what is it for and its functions?

What is a microprocessor?

The central integrates circuit of a computer system is calls the microprocessor or simple processor. In which logical and arithmetic operations (calculations) are carrying out to allow the execution of programs. The Operating System to the Application Software using AirPods for small ears.

A microprocessor can operate on one or more CPUs (Central Processing Units). Each consists of registers, a control unit, an arithmetic-logic unit, and a floating-point calculation unit (or mathematical coprocessor).

Also, it is usually connects via a socket to the motherboard or motherboard, along with a heat sink system. It consists of several thermal dissipation materials and a fan cooler (internal fan).

While the same microprocessor may have one or more physical or logical cores, on which all computational work is performs, the same computer system may have several processors that work identically.

The performance of these processors is not easy to measure. But the clock frequency (measures in hertz) is often use to distinguish between the power of one and the other.


Microprocessors have emergs as a product of the technological evolution of two particular branches: computing and semiconductors. Both began in the mid-20th century, in the context of World War II, with the invention of the transistor, which replaces vacuum tubes.

Since then, silicon has been used to produce simple electronic circuits, which later resulted (early 1960s) in the creation of the first digital circuits: Transistor-Resistor Logic (RTL), Diode Transistor Logic (DTL), Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) and Emitter Complemented Logic (ECL).

The next step towards microprocessors was the invention of integrated circuits (SSI and MSI), thus allowing the beginning of the aggregation and miniaturization of components. The first calculators to use this technology, however, required between 75 and 100 integrated circuits, which was impractical. And so the next step in reducing computational architecture was the development of the first microprocessors.

The first processor was the Intel 4004 make in 1971. It contains 2300 transistors and with a capacity of only 4 bits it can perform 60,000 logic operations per second, at a clock frequency of 700 Hz. Since then, the technology race has invested in developing better and more powerful microchips: 8-bit, 16 bits, 32 bits and 64 bits, currently reaching frequencies above 3 GHz.



The memory cache prevents RAM memory from being used unnecessarily.

Microprocessors resemble a tiny digital computer, so it has its own architecture and performs operations under a control program. This architecture consists of:

Encapsulated. A ceramic shell that wraps silicon and protects it from the elements (such as oxygen in the air).

Cache. A type of very fast memory that the processor can use so that it does not use RAM unless necessary with best wireless headphones for laptops because the data used is stored in different levels of cache memory for immediate retrieval.

math coprocessor. Called the floating-point unit, this is the part of the processor that handles logical and formal operations.

Records. Short working memory in the processor, designed to monitor its own operation and conditions.

Ports. Conduits allow the processor to communicate information to other parts of the system.

What is the for?

Microprocessors are the “brain” of the computer: its logical center of arithmetic and logical operations, where all system programs are executed, both in the Operating System and user-executed applications. There is also binary system logic and memory access. Meaning: the processor is the informative machine of the computer.

microprocessor functionality


A fetch is the sending of a specific instruction to the decoder.

Secondly, a microprocessor works base on a series of elementary instructions that are pre-program and store in the form of binary code. These instructions will be organize in the main memory, and given in stages.